Roman historical dates gratefully lifted from a fine introductory lecture to Aeneid 1-3 by Amanda Hopkins:

c. 1300–1000   Fall of Troy
c. 1000               Latins settle in Latium
c. 850                 Herodotus’ estimate of Homer‘s era
c. 815                  Foundation of Carthage by Tyrians
c. 625                  Founding of Rome
509                      Roman Republic founded
508                      Political reform in Athens, move toward democracy
496                      Romans defeat Latins at Lake Regillus
431                       Euripides’ Medea performed
322                      Alexander of Macedon completes conquest of Greece; end of Athenian democracy
264–41               First Punic War between Rome and Carthage
218–201             Second Punic War; invasion of Italy by Hannibal
149–146             Third Punic War, siege and destruction of Carthage
145                      Destruction of Rome
100                      Birth of Julius Caesar
70                        Birth of Vergil
68                        Birth of Octavian (Augustus)
60                        First Triumvirate (Julius Caesar, Crassus, Pompey)
59                        Julius Caesar elected consul
53                        Death of Crassus
52                        Pompey elected consul; Julius Caesar told to disband armies
49–46                 Julius Caesar declares war on Pompey and Senate; civil war
48                        Pompey defeated, then murdered; Julius Caesar becomes loverof Cleopatra
46                        Julius Caesar victorious: dictator of Rome
44                        Julius Caesar murdered; Octavian becomes consul
43                        Second Triumvirate (Antony, Lepidus, Octavian)
42                        Antony defeats Cassius and Brutus; Julius Caesar declared a god
40                        Antony controls East, Lepidus controls Africa, Octavian controls West. Antony forms liaison with Cleopatra
31                        Battle of Actium: Octavian defeats Antony and Cleopatra
29–19                 Vergil’s Aeneid composed
27                        Octavian becomes Emperor Augustus; reforms lead to stability
23                        Death of Marcellus, heir to Augustus
c. 20                    Ovid’s Heroides composed
19                        Death of Vergil
400                     Augustine’s Confessions
c. 1307–21         Dante’s Divine Comedy
1388                    Chaucer’s Legend of Good Women
c. 1405                de Pizan’s Book of the City of Ladies
c. 1585                Marlowe’s Dido, Queen of Carthage
c. 1600                Shakespeare’s Hamlet
c. 1607                Shakespeare’s Antony and Cleopatra
c. 1630                “The Wandering Prince of Troy” ballad
c. 1688                Purcell & Tate’s Dido and Aeneas
1696                    Dryden’s translation of The Aeneid


Two pages from the Chronicles or Calendars of Eusebius, Bishop of Caesarea (St Andrews copy at TypFP.B12SE) (Special Collections of the University of St Andrews); see “Cartographies of Time: A History of the Timeline,” Daniel Rosenberg and Anthony Grafton